The levels of pain different people experience and their reactions to it vary widely, perhaps due to:

  • psychological state
  • age
  • gender
  • social environment
  • cultural background
  • genetic or physiological differences

Pain perception needs to be examined at all levels of basic and clinical research, including behavioral
research, with the goal of developing interventions to manage or prevent pain.

  • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: NIAMS provides information about rheumatic, bone, muscle, and skin diseases. It distributes patient and professional education materials and refers people to other sources of information.
  • National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research: NIDCR provides information about craniofacialoral-dental diseases and disorders. It distributes patient and professional education materials and refers people to other sources of information.
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: NINDS provides information about neurological disorders. It distributes patient and professional education materials and refers people to other sources of information.
  • American Chronic Pain Association: This association provides information on positive ways to deal with chronic pain and can provide guidelines on selecting a pain management center.
  • American Pain Society: This society provides general information to the public and maintains a directory of resources, including referrals to pain centers.
  • National Foundation for the Treatment of Pain: This organization provides support for patients who are suffering from pain, their families and friends, and the physicians who treat them.